Technology is the science of any methods, systems, skills, or processes employed in the creation of goods and services or in the achievement of specific goals, for instance in scientific research or in the production of new products. A broad definition of technology could be said to cover most human activities involving the use of tools and equipment. Technological change is the introduction of new and improved procedures, materials, machines, etc. that previously did not exist. Technological change is therefore both a cause and effect of economic growth.
Technological change is also accompanied by an increase in productivity due to greater effectiveness of the means employed. Some of the most significant areas in which new technologies are finding a place are communications and computer networking. In other areas, however, newer technologies are developing so quickly that their impact on society is still relatively modest. The economy of most nations is dependent on the ability to produce modern technologies, so rapid technological developments have profound implications on the economy.
There are three broad categories of technological systems. These are engineering, scientific knowledge, and software. Within each of these three categories there are many different subcategories. Some of these include machine technology, scientific knowledge associated with specific fields, and software, which refers to the applications and utilities developed for use by humans. In modern society, different things like information technology, communication technology, and business technology form a part of the category of modern technology, while civil and social engineering surrounds us with issues like water, sanitation, and transportation.
One of the most important distinctions between modern technology is that the former deals more with processes and objects, while the latter deals more with people. The field of information technology, for example, actually uses the concept of systematic treatment to describe the process of how information is processed, collected, and made accessible. Information technology therefore describes computer systems, networks, software, hardware, documentation, etc. On the other hand, science uses the term technology to refer to the physical sciences, including space science, astronomy, earth science, physics, etc., as well as to describe the physical processes involved in those fields.
While the meaning of technology has changed over time and within different sectors, some things like thermodynamics and classical mechanics still appear to be in need of precise descriptions. In this context, it seems that a definition of technology should take into account the fact that technology is always associated with science and vice versa. A system that is characterized by consistent laws of classical mechanics and thermodynamics, for example, can be called technology. A system that contains a great deal of repeating cycles, for example, can be called science. A society that produces an enormous amount of technological goods in order to meet the needs of its people can be considered to have a highly developed technological society.
Technological systems are thus not timeless, but social and cultural products of society. The science of technology cannot therefore be separated from society, as science cannot be learned independently of experience. The definition of technology should therefore take into account both the process of producing technological systems as well as the purposes for which they are used. Technological systems have developed through the accumulation of accumulated knowledge. They have also been developed through the use of technological systems tools and techniques. Those that have been shaped by society have had significant modifications made in order to make way for new technological systems.